One Answer

  1. Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) was the founder of the ANALYTICAL approach in depth psychotherapy. Deep psychotherapy is understood as working within the framework of the psychodynamic direction (which we have already mentioned), which is based on working with the unconscious part of the human personality. Jung, in contrast to Freud and Adler, who attached special importance to the early years of life as a crucial stage in the formation of personality, considered its development as a dynamic process, as an evolution throughout life. Jung's reworking of psychoanalysis resulted in a whole complex of complex ideas from such diverse fields of knowledge as psychology, philosophy, astrology, archaeology, mythology, theology, and literature. This breadth of intellectual search, combined with Jung's complex and enigmatic writing style, is why his psychological theory is the most difficult to understand. The personality structure, according to Jung, is: 1. The EGO is a conscious activity of the psyche, sensations, feelings, thoughts, with the help of which we are aware of ourselves as a whole; 2. The PERSONAL UNCONSCIOUS is somewhat similar to Freud's understanding of IT, but more expanded in that it contains not only “energetic” charges of libido, but also all sorts of complexes, such as an unrealized desire for power, which concentrates a significant part of psychic energy around itself; 3. THE COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS, which is a repository of latent traces of human memory, it reflects thoughts and feelings common to all human beings and As Jung himself said, ” the collective unconscious contains the entire spiritual legacy of human evolution, which has been reborn in the structure of the brain of each individual.” The collective unconscious is “a spiritual legacy of all that humanity has experienced”, “a common soul that has no time limits”, the foundation of the individual psyche. It is “the presupposition of each individual psyche, just as the sea is the presupposition of each individual wave.” Jung introduces such an important concept as an ARCHETYPE. Archetypes are innate ideas or memories that predispose people to perceive, experience, and respond to events in a certain way. The archetype is often compared to a riverbed that has not yet been filled. So, when meeting a snake, one person experiences wild fear, the second-interest. This reaction is unconscious and is rather a response to the generational experience, which is continuous. There are countless archetypes. However, we can distinguish the main ones. ANIMA is the unconscious feminine side of a man's personality. ANIMUS – the unconscious male side of a woman's personality. mask/PERSONA – a social role of a person that does not correspond to its essence. SHADOW (ALTER EGO) – all those true desires that we cannot recognize. The SELF is the embodiment of wholeness and harmony, the regulating center of the individual. The SELF is the core of the individual, designed to bring the entire structure into harmony. According to Jung, the ultimate goal of life is the full manifestation of Oneself, that is, the formation of a single, unique and integral individual. The development of each person in this direction is unique, it continues throughout life and includes a process called INDIVIDUATION. To put it simply, individuation is a dynamic and evolving process of integrating many opposing intrapersonal forces and tendencies into a whole. In its final expression, individuation presupposes the conscious manifestation of a person's unique psychic reality, the full development and expression of all the elements of personality. The very concepts of archetypes and the collective unconscious reflected Jung's mystical orientation. Jung was one of the first to recognize the positive contribution of religious, spiritual, and even mystical experiences to personal development. Accordingly, neither the existence of archetypes nor the existence of the collective unconscious in the Jungian sense of these words has been proven and cannot currently be considered a scientific theory. However, can any erroneous opinion be called pseudoscientific? In my opinion, no. Pseudoscientific – that, relying on a pseudoscientific apparatus, 1) denies firmly established facts; 2) behaves aggressively towards modern science as a whole. Jung doesn't have that. With his assumptions, he simply filled a conceptual void in an area that at that time was not possible to study with strict scientific methods. At a certain level of development of knowledge, such a technique is quite acceptable, it is not permissible to turn it into a dogma and insist on it as the ultimate truth. In addition, Jung's research has brought some benefits. Although almost none of the scientists currently believe in the existence of archetypes in the Jungian sense of the word, the very concept of “archetype” is quite firmly established in folklore studies, ethnography, religious studies, etc. Most often, this word is understood as a well-established, typological image. The classification proposed by Jung is largely successful, for example , the concept of “trickster” is very convenient to use for a certain type of mythological characters. Jung's theory has no empirical verification, but is nevertheless included in programs on personality psychology and is studied on a par with other theories. There is a separate therapeutic area dealing with Jungian psychoanalysis. In relation to positive psychology, it is a marginal theory. The scientific community recognizes Jung as part of the history of psychology.After all, he did not invent these archetypes, but encountered them in therapeutic practice. In this regard, I would like to cite one fact from his life. “Before the First World War, Jung had the same dream for several weeks — as if blood was coming out of the ground and rising higher and higher, flooding everything around him. Trying to escape, he runs from this stream into the mountains, but the sea of blood comes there, and stumps of human bodies float in it. The scientist, disturbed by a recurring nightmare, was about to see one of his fellow psychiatrists when the World War broke out and the dreams stopped. Jung later found out that many people dreamed of similar pictures on the eve of the war. Thus, the “collective unconscious” he discovered lived in anticipation of war, the very idea of which seemed to be in the air, and foresaw the future horrors of mass destruction of people.” The most famous works are “Archetype and symbol”, ” Soul and Myth. Six Archetypes”, “Red Book” and others

Leave a Reply