3 Answers

  1. Because Russell sees philosophy as a servant of religion first, and then science – something like that. He does not distinguish between the peculiarities of the philosophical way of looking at the world and the tasks of philosophy, so he explains it through reference to science and religion, which in general has the right to exist as his personal opinion.

  2. You have to look in B. Russell's eyes. I will assume that religion is faith, science is a hostage of the scientific paradigm, and philosophy comprehensively examines the foundations of science, the mechanics of reality. In this regard, I recommend the work of a real philosopher “Girenok Fedor-Clip consciousness”

  3. Philosophy is the foundation of a worldview, both scientific and religious, as well as”subjectivist”.

    Philosophy, by default, considers the most diverse variants of the world's structure, the most diverse causalities of the phenomena we observe.

    If the cause of everything is an idea, a thought, or an ideal, then it is idealism. If matter is the cause of everything, its motion is materialism.

    All religions by default imply an unorganized power in the material world of extra-real entities (ideas). Thus, in such a philosophy, the idea objectively exists (objective idealism).

    In principle, there is also subjective idealism, which consists in the fact that the opinion of each person is true for this person and is fundamentally unknowable for all other people (moreover, from the point of view of such a philosophy, other people may simply not even exist). This also includes any denial of facts in favor of opinions, for example, the so-called “objectivism” (where the concept is defined, if roughly, as the “arithmetic mean” of all people's ideas about this concept, and not by any definition that is constant or develops with the development of science).

    Within science, there are many different philosophical trends that claim to be materialistic of what they describe. But, for example, the positivism that currently prevails in science is in reality extremely idealistic (since it denies general philosophical principles in science as such, especially a thought experiment; that is, each subject is considered separately exclusively at the level of experiments and observations, without isolating concepts in it, i.e., theorizing is reduced to “selecting” a suitable model for describing the results of experiments).

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