2 Answers

  1. A square is, in general, a quadrilateral and also rectangular. In geometry, a square is generally called a regular quadrilateral, because, by definition, a regular quadrilateral is a quadrilateral in which all sides and angles are equal, so it can be considered as an ideal case of the set of all shapes that can be called quadrilaterals, from which it can be called a concrete concept. Whiteness is the property of bodies or something being white. In general, the concepts concrete and abstract are relative, since we call a particular concept concrete if it has all the characteristics that define a particular category of the categories given to us, and abstract is the concept that names this category, i.e. it is it. For example, your example is square and white. If we find such a concept that it will have these two properties, then we will call it specific in relation to these categories. The question of which is more abstract, square or white, can be answered if we know that the whole set of concepts that is included in one category under consideration is also included in another category under consideration, then the category that is included in the other will be a concrete concept in relation to the one that is included in it, and accordingly the category that Now it remains to answer what is included in what-a square in white or vice versa. What is clear is that square-shaped white bodies are included in the “whiteness”, but also part of the whiteness is included in the squares, as are all bodies of all colors, but square in shape. But we understand that all square-shaped bodies do not have only white color, so squares do not completely enter into whiteness. On the other hand, all white bodies are not just squares, so whiteness is not completely included in the squares. Thus, whiteness and squares, in relation to each other, are not an abstract and concrete concept at the same time.

  2. A square is an even-defined concept.

    If a shape in a geometry problem is designated by the term “square”, then it is automatically clear which class of shapes is meant (we mean shapes that combine the properties of both a rhombus and a rectangle). Usually, such concrete data is sufficient to solve the geometry problem itself, as well as to expand our understanding of geometry as a whole (for research).

    As for whiteness, if we mean the artistic, literary and everyday meaning of this word (and not the chemical one), then this concept is abstract precisely because the word “whiteness” is not enough to study the object designated by it, moreover, whiteness as a separate object does not exist, it is a product of our awareness of reality. (In contrast to the square, which, of course, in our perception is also something strictly defined ideal, but still they can be sufficiently accurately represented by some material objects)

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