7 Answers

  1. I will not consider the points of view of various philosophical schools, I would have to write a monograph and not the fact that it would turn out, the topic is not entirely mine. I will touch only on one important point.
    Yes, we don't owe anyone anything, but no one owes us anything. We can treat people as we want, but they can also do the same. As soon as we accept something from others, we either repay it with payment or become debtors. These are basic norms of relationships, they do not depend on our opinion about them, because if you think that you should not pay at the checkout for sausage, it does not hurt to call the police and punish you. Your opinion may not change from the punishment, but your life will be affected by the punishment. This applies to society as a whole (not to be confused with the state) and the relationship of various social groups with the individual or among themselves.
    Here you were born, as it is now fashionable to say, involuntarily. Don't think, however, that you don't owe anyone anything for this reason. That's what you think, but since you're staying alive, you'll either have to stick to the rules of the game, break them, fight to change them, or try to leave society. Whether you like it or not, you will have a certain relationship with other people. As the classic wrote, one cannot live in society and be free from it (even being an absolute monarch, because kings can't do everything). What matters is not what we think about our debt, but what our social partners think about it, who have the ability to force us to pay, whether it's money or the rule not to go completely naked on the streets. So the truth is that as long as we're alive, we always owe someone something, and someone owes us something. The balance of debt is determined by various forms of relationships, among which the power of compulsion is crucial (from the simplest physical to the most subtle forms of psychological and cultural processing).
    You must and always will owe something, but you owe it to at least one person. The opinion “I don't owe anyone anything” is just self-deception. If you really want to get rid of certain debts, then the first step is to recognize their existence. Only then do you say to yourself: I do not recognize this duty, this duty, this rule, this law, etc. And then you can either fight it, violate it, or circumvent it, depending on your wishes and circumstances.

  2. Various questions: (man-man, man-society). With “man-society” everything is quite simple, there is a concept of “social contract” – a person gives to the state (state = social institution of society): taxes, behavior in accordance with the laws of the state, etc., and the state gives a person: protection from external and internal enemies, again, guarantees that not only this person, but also all other people will comply with the laws, etc.

    That is, if you imagine what a person will say: “I don't owe anything to the society!”, then the society can answer: “well, then we, the society, don't owe you anything!”. And it seems to me that it is the person who will get VERY bad from this, and not vice versa))).If there are no emoticons, then sometimes people challenge society at the level of destroying members of this society (terrorism), and the state, that is, society, will mercilessly destroy such people for this. So ,” don't owe anything to the state” is as effective as spitting into the wind or running towards a steam locomotive and shouting: “Get out of the way, I'll run you over!”

    About “man-man” now: there are concepts of morality and social norms. The state may not regulate everything explicitly (prescribe rules and impose penalties for deviation from the rules), but there are other people. Example: a person lies, always and to everyone, pathologically. Is it possible to bring him to administrative or criminal responsibility? If he's never lied in court, you can't. But other people treat him with contempt for this. And if this person gets into a difficult situation and, for example, is in dire need of food, no one can give him food (because he is a liar, and he is not hungry at all!). Again, it turns out: no one owes anyone anything, but be prepared for the fact that “giving back can torment” (as children say).

  3. Do to others what others should do to you. This principle is quite comprehensive and is expressed in one form or another in almost any moral and philosophical doctrine.

    Thus, a person is given a choice – to take on a debt to society and get as a result the debt of society to him, or to send society in the ass and be sent by him.

  4. Usually, heroes and glorious people in history are considered people who have benefited humanity, sacrificed their lives for others, and performed heroic deeds for the benefit of society. These ideals show the attitude of society to such a path – awe, reverence, glory. Of course, in the whole world around us, what is honored is that which serves others, which benefits, and does not just benefit from the labors of other beings. Of course, you can manipulate all this, impose a sense of duty, abuse it, and so on. But this is another question, there are subtleties and so on. But abuse does not abolish use, just as counterfeit money does not abolish real money.

  5. “Or put it another way: is it true that no one owes anyone anything?”

    Truth. If you take this principle as the basis of your life, then it is very easy to live psychologically.�

    And this principle should be applied as follows:

    “No one owes me anything.” In particular:

    1. No one is supposed to clean my entrance. I just don't trash myself, and if there's trash, I clean it up.�

    2. The state doesn't owe me a secure old age. To ensure a decent pension is my concern while I am young and strong.�

    3. My wife doesn't have to cook me a delicious dinner tonight. She might get tired at work. No dinner, no scandal. I do it myself and my family. Total: a good dinner and a good mood. But it happens differently for others: a quick meal and a scandal.�

    4. Children don't have to learn well. I must create conditions for children to study.�

    5. My employer doesn't have to pay me a large salary. I must develop professionally . If I am a sought-after good specialist, a good salary from another employer will find me on its own.�

    etc.

  6. I am not a philosopher, so I will only answer the second part of the question. A person does not just owe money to society, he wants to pay these debts. At the same time, it does not matter what he thinks about it. Moreover, the ability to think independently and have one's own point of view is encouraged by society, imposed on a person. I propose to consider the basic desires of the average person. The child wants to go to school (in the 1st grade), and then wants to finish it quickly. After school, as a rule, he wants to go somewhere, get an education. Everyone wants to move out from their parents and consider it completely natural (and even 150 – 200 years ago it was completely optional for men). Everyone wants to work and earn money. At the same time, I want to do something interesting. At the same time, we were also told what kind of work to consider interesting (at least from the very beginning, we did not have this information in our head). And everyone also wants to have friends and feel like they belong in a certain group. At the same time, the norms of behavior and morality are accepted by a person with joy and enthusiasm: look, for example, at subcultures or prison concepts – any group has a moral code and who should not be expelled from the group (this is at best). Since all people themselves are members of society, everyone, to one degree or another, participates in the formation of other people and, under certain circumstances, punishes violators of the rules. This is manifested in the desire to express their point of view, prove their case, and deprive people of their communication (how many people stopped communicating because of political positions?).

    And how much more do we owe to nature? Sexual instincts are so strong that they are often the cause of family breakdown. The desire to dominate often forces fully grown people to act on the principle:”I will freeze my mother's ears for evil.” The desire to be a member of a group (pack) forces you to be a nonconformist, paradoxically.

  7. A person owes another person exactly as much as he feels that he should. Guilt, hate, love, sense of duty, duty. All this is imposed in a person's head by itself or by manipulation. Basically, we don't owe anyone anything. We were born into this world. Okay Is that what we wanted? Was everything consensual? Have you ever been given the opportunity to give up further life? I think everyone has the same situation: no. If we are allowed into this world and we do not see that we are obliged to do something, then we do not owe anything to anyone. And you know. I noticed one thing. Psychos have a lot of the word “need” and the like. People go crazy and give their lives in exchange for some achievements. Okay, it's cool to achieve something, but not at the cost of your life. Although dying for something and becoming a hero certainly sounds cool, but not in our years. I still want to see what life has in store.

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