5 Answers

  1. To think rationally, you need to think logically. Studying mathematics is suitable for such skills. And simply-solving interesting logical problems (Collections from Salliman, Carol, Martin Gardner…). But this is not enough. You need basic knowledge. At least in the school course. Usually, school knowledge quickly fades (if it remains at all), and it is they that generally provide the basis for rational thinking. Only it is necessary to study school subjects not formally (cramming), but with an understanding of the essence. And the ability to apply this knowledge in life.

  2. What is rationality?

    We look at Wikipedia.

    Rationality is reasonableness.

    Reasonableness is when someone does the right thing.

    Then turn on the head.

    Everyone does the right thing if they pursue their own benefit.

    As a result , it turns out that there can be a lot of rationalities, because everyone has their own benefit. It is not surprising that when we start looking for rationality in another person, his actions seem irrational to us.

    How to start thinking rationally?

    Some people fall under the influence of other people's rational ideas and start thinking irrationally for themselves (but it seems to them that this is rational). To prevent this from happening, you must first learn to understand your benefits from this or that action. You can only do this in real time based on your emotions. For example, if you are scared, disgusted, disgusted, or angry, then it is better to stay away from such rationality. If your sensitivity to these feelings is well developed and you feel them every day (every day we encounter something that we don't need), then congratulations, you can already think rationally. If not, then you can contact practicing psychologists or psychotherapists, they will definitely help you with this.

  3. Basic knowledge and skills:

    Classical logic, for example, Bocharov, Markin.


    I would not read too much at once, it is better to learn something new and immediately go to apply it in different areas and in a versatile way.

    Tools for training your thinking:

    Mathematics, intellectual games (chess, go, strategy games) are more complex and narrowly focused activities that require basic knowledge and skills. In principle, thinking can be developed in almost any field, if you carefully approach the situation and make a decision. Even in everyday life or playing the fool. You can develop communication thinking, for example, by trying to reach a better understanding and avoid conflicts, especially where they really shouldn't exist. You can create a Raven test and try to understand what specific skills and mental operations are needed to perform it. A special impetus to development for me personally was later attempts to build an algorithm for solving a problem that I could not solve before. As well as the very process of solving a very complex problem, on the verge or even a little beyond my abilities. It is in such cases that we reach a new level of thinking. And when we solve problems at our own level, we essentially trash and recombine the solution methods we already know (although this is also not useless.)

  4. Great question)

    I think first of all, to recall the basic laws of logic. Often we make the most serious mistakes in vain generalizing. For example, if I know two alcoholic plumbers, I conclude that all plumbers are alcoholics.

    There's also a great book by Kahneman, Think Slow, Decide Fast. It describes the most common mistakes of our everyday thinking when making decisions. It says that there are 2 decision-making systems. The first one is the simplest and not costly for the body, this is the first thing that comes to mind. And the second, serious, analytical, logically more correct. The book itself is about how to avoid falling into the trap of your own brain and make informed, accurate decisions.

  5. This is a very complex and time-consuming process. To begin with, it is worth realizing that the brain is subject to cognitive errors due to its evolutionary history, such as the phenomenon of apophenia (the search for patterns in the surrounding world). First, you should study them and try to avoid this in your reasoning. A good option is to read books on logic, as well as books on how the brain works (getting to know Eagleman is a good option).
    Then you can choose the main core of interesting topics and develop in this direction, for example, I want to know how the universe works and constantly dig in this direction.
    I myself went through a path in search of rational thinking and gradually began to know more about the world. I use the following sites: elements, post-science, naked science. Subscribed to Artur Sharifov, Pobedinsky and other educational channels.

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