4 Answers

  1. Consciousness is the fusion of speech and the psyche and, as a result, the ability to control the psyche to some extent (for example, force yourself to remember something, consciously concentrate attention, etc.). Speech and consciousness are parts of the psyche, so the separation of these concepts is conditional. Moreover, consciousness is, by and large, all that we have. As far as I understand, if you cut the corpus callosum (stop the exchange of information between the hemispheres), then one eye will stop seeing, that is, the right (as a rule) hemisphere does not have speech centers and therefore visual information will not be conscious. A person will claim that one eye has stopped seeing. At the same time, if you make a sharp movement in his direction (simulate a blow), he will pull his head back (try to dodge). It happens that, as a result of any brain damage, visual information ceases to flow to the speech centers of the cortex and the person goes blind. However, if such a person is very frightened by something and starts running away – then he will not crash, for example, into a pole or fall into a pit, his vision is available at the “animal level”. This, in itself, is interesting. If we are not aware of something, then it does not exist for us, although this information can easily be used in decision-making. For example, fixation amnesia (Korsakov syndrome) – patients can not remember anything. An experiment was conducted with them: the doctor daily, shaking hands with them, caused them a little physical pain (for example, pricked their hand with a needle). After a while, the patients refused to reach out, not knowing why. Roughly speaking, the brain acts as a whole and does not always ask “our opinion”.

    If we talk about what the psyche is, then this is a completely theoretical question (rather, a philosophical one). Why did we, for example, decide that the sunflower does not have a psyche (although it is able to turn after the sun)? At one time, different criteria were distinguished. For example, the presence of nervous tissue A. N. Leontiev (one of the founding fathers of Russian psychology) suggests considering the ability of living organisms to respond to biologically neutral influences as an objective criterion of the psyche. Biologically neutral effects are those types of energy or properties of objects that are not directly involved in the metabolism. By themselves, these effects are neither useful nor harmful; the animal does not feed on them, they do not destroy its body. This means that, for example, rustling in the bushes, in itself, is not good and not bad. However, it signals, for example, that a predator is lurking in the bushes. The psyche, according to Leontiev, is what makes it possible to “see” these connections, to react to an objectively neutral stimulus, since it signals something biologically significant.

  2. Consciousness is the highest form of mental development.

    “Just the psyche”is a mechanism for reflecting objective reality, and not only that which can be eaten or multiplied,but also biologically neutral.And when the subject of the psyche also appears in the field of attention, consciousness arises. This person is different, for example, from a dog, which she herself is in a state of satiety and comfort to the light bulb.

  3. Consciousness is the sum of physiological sensations.�
    The psyche can be considered as the sum of consciousness, self-identification (the fact that you distinguish yourself as an object separate from the outside world) and memory.
    Intelligence (whose components are speech and thinking) I would not include it in this list, since it is transmitted within society by learning and is not innate.

  4. Consciousness is only a part of the psyche. In addition to the conscious, there is the unconscious and the preconscious. Conscious, according to scientists, about 5% of the entire psyche. And we have the illusion that we can understand everything and explain everything))

Leave a Reply