2 Answers

  1. As an employee of the Tolerance Center, I talk about such things every day, and answer such questions.

    I can write a lot of letters here, so that I don't get bombarded with minuses and don't get accused of some things, I'll just share some concepts. If you're interested, check it out.

    Answering the question itself, then briefly-yes, absolutely to everyone, without exception! This phenomenon goes on evolutionarily, laid down at the level of the “reptilian” brain (Paul McLean). I.e. it is laid down in us biologically since who the hell knows what times. BUT! It's all about concepts. Xenophobia itself, of course, is not inherent, because xenophobia is precisely hatred, dislike, disgust for others, and acceptance only of “our own”.�

    To be academically precise, the main concepts of ethnic identity (as a form of social identity) and ethnocentrism play a major role.

    The latter is the central message about your question. In short, this is a phenomenon when a person gives more positive characteristics to his own people, while at the same time he can slightly underestimate other people. As you can see, this is not about hatred and xenophobia. This is such a phenomenon as the result of identifying oneself with one's ethnic group (where one was born/grew up/lives all his life, etc.). If everything is normal in communication and development, then nothing happens. If the experience is negative, then it just turns into xenophobia, chauvinism, nationalism, fascism.

    p. s. and it is precisely ethnic identity, ethnocentrism and several other concepts in the same plane that are biologically laid down from the very origins of humanity.

  2. All biological beings, including humanity, have both species incorporation and rejection reactions. Both are inherent. This is rather a dynamic process.

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