2 Answers

  1. Outside of perception, all processes are free from interaction. Our attention organizes both cause and effect. Analyze your dreams. Think of a dreamless sleep.

  2. Who told you they didn't exist? 🙂 From an empirical point of view, there is a stable and regular relationship of events ordered in space-time. If we assume that this relationship is a reflection of regularities called laws of nature, then we come to the idea of nomological causality (from the word “nomos” – “law”). This is causality, expressed in the form of a law that connects certain classes of events (“consequences”) with other classes of events (“causes”) that precede them chronologically. There, of course, we still need to specify what kind of laws we use – whether in the form of logical consequence (implication) or not, in what modality (necessity/sufficiency), and so on. But on this basis, a grid of causal relationships is quite built up, sufficient for everyday experience and scientific knowledge.

    Another question is that it is impossible to prove or refute strictly logically that events are somehow causally forcing each other, i.e., they are genetically linked by some specific metaphysical relation of causation, and not just regularly ordered in space-time like film frames. In fact, David Hume was one of the first people to express skepticism about our intuitive understanding of causality and to point out that we are dealing only with the external side-the empirical connection of events. And this is not enough to strictly logically conclude that behind this connection there is a special universal metaphysical principle of causality. This is the subject of our causal belief. Just as the belief in the existence of an external reality is the subject of our existential belief.

Leave a Reply