3 Answers

  1. Each ethnic group has its own historically formed gene pool, and geneticists can determine its ethnic origin from a person's DNA, therefore, yes, from the point of view of genetics, nationality exists.

  2. Please do not confuse soft with warm. There are ethnic nationalities. That is, they are defined by their ethnic identity. I am Ukrainian, because my ancestors were Ukrainians, I feel like a Ukrainian and identify with this ethnic group, culture, language, etc.

    There is political nationalism. When my parents are Russian, I consider myself Russian, I identify not with Khmelnitsky and Shevchenko, but with Suvorov and Pushkin. But at the same time, I live in Ukraine, I love Ukraine and share its values. Then I am Russian in an ethical sense, but Ukrainian as part of a political nation.

    p. s nationalism and nations in the modern sense appeared at about the same time as the railway and telegraph, i.e. when it became possible to organize normal communication between different parts of the country. Prior to this, residents of different regions had little association with each other.

  3. No. Nationality is a political concept defined by the citizenship of a particular country (what is meant by nationality in English) or belonging to a particular culture (what in the Russian scientific language in recent years has become known as ethnicity).

    In ancient times, there were constant mixing of different peoples. Moreover, the situation was normal when the country was ruled by conquerors who were linguistically and culturally alien to the conquered population. The most famous examples are the founding of the Russian state by the Varangians, the Norman conquest of England, or the Manchu conquest of China. A very significant episode in history, although less well-known than the previous ones – the Turkic conquerors of Bulgaria, who gave the country its own name (I think everyone wondered why” Bulgaria “and” Bulgaria ” sound so similar?) Over time, the Turkic rulers assimilated, and the Bulgarian people did not stop speaking the Slavic language and considering themselves Slavs. Conversely, there are many examples in history when peoples who are very close in terms of language and culture have become bitter enemies (like the Serbs and Croats, for example). If everything was determined by genetic kinship, this would not be possible.

    After the advent of available methods for sequencing the human genetic code, studies of the genetic relationship of people of different nationalities began to be conducted. There are so-called “haplogroups” – similar mutations that most likely originally occurred in the same place, and thus can serve as markers of “kinship” (very distant). Haplogroups can be distinguished by mitochondrial DNA (they are passed down the maternal line) and by the Y-chromosome (on the paternal line). However, scientists who do this always warn against trying to identify haplogroups with modern ethnic groups, since there is almost never a strict correspondence (unless we are talking about very isolated populations).

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