9 Answers

  1. All known scientific theories of the existence of the universe assume its eternity, based on the idea that energy does not appear out of nothingness and does not disappear into nowhere. The question boils down to what form the universe will exist in. Or it will decay to a state in which the particles will be removed from each other until interaction is impossible. Or it will shrink to a state of singularity, from which there will be no reason to get out. Or it will forever cyclically contract and break up.

  2. Maybe, but here you need to understand that the term “eternity” is a category of time, and time is an attribute of our space-time continuum.

    So the universe exists forever from the moment of its appearance to the moment of its disappearance. We have no other time. As long as time exists, so does the universe.

    What will happen to it in the infinite future? It will exist as long as its time exists.

    How will it change? – it will continue to change from simple to complex.

    Our consciousness used to be a homogeneous gas-hydrogen.

  3. How can the universe exist forever (always) and what can happen in the infinite future?

    “Always”is a category of time, and time, according to science, appeared along with the universe.

    To prove the “eternity” of the universe, it is necessary to prove that time is generated in the universe itself.

    In the infinite future, there may be a “shutdown” of our reality. Our reality is a formula (program, Logos) and its execution can be completed.

  4. So far, in the light of recent cosmological theories, the eternity of the universe is not disputed. Yes, it will exist forever, until the last proton of the last atom decays, and even longer. But do you need such an “eternity” in the middle of a cemetery? Humanity, along with all other civilizations, will definitely die out much earlier.

  5. Who would let her? It is only a little more than a couple of thousand years old (if historians are not lying to us). Before that, there was no universe, there were people, things, spirits, gods. But man is a creative being, and it is boring for him to live in the same world for thousands of years, so he regularly invents new worlds. Even now, it seems that people want something new and ask the wrong questions. Apparently, the time has come to create a new world. So it is unlikely that the universe will last for more than a hundred years. The human creative spirit will not allow it.

    And in the infinite future, nothing can happen, because it will always remain in the future :)))

  6. According to modern concepts, the expansion of the universe occurs under the influence of dark energy.The nature of dark energy is not yet known,but it is clear that it is a property of the vacuum,the more space(vacuum) appears, the more dark energy appears.This is a remarkable fact that violates the law of conservation of energy, which is familiar to everyone and is strictly implemented in everyday life,but this is a property of expanding space.This conclusion is based on the fact that the density of dark energy in the universe does not change over time.At the same time, the density of matter and radiation decreases, and for this reason, the expansion rate of the universe is constantly increasing.As the expansion of space accelerates,the radius of the Hubble sphere decreases.It should be borne in mind that the interaction between any bodies occurs at the speed of light and any interaction (gravitational, electromagnetic, strong, weak)particles are possible only with bodies that are inside the Hubble sphere of this particle.When the Hubble sphere becomes smaller than the radius of the galaxies, the stars, those on the periphery will fly away in free flight,while the inner stars form supermassive black holes in the center of the former galaxies.The rate of expansion is increasing, and eventually all the matter in the universe will turn into quark-gluon plasma and black holes, which by then had been greatly reduced by Hawking radiation.Finally, when the rate of expansion of space increases so much that the radius of the Hubble sphere becomes on the order of Planck dimensions, the expansion of space will begin to prevent the recombination of virtual particle-antiparticle pairs that constantly arise in space, adding energy to them and thus turning them into real particles.Most pairs then annihilate,but apparently there is a mechanism (still unknown to science) due to which particles are formed by a minuscule fraction more than antiparticles.The resulting matter and radiation slow down the further expansion of the universe,which has been expanding slowly for many billions of years.Then,as space expands, dark energy begins to prevail over the forces of gravity,the universe will begin to expand with acceleration.The cycle will repeat.This is exactly the nature of the expansion of the universe that astronomers have observed in the past.This is exactly the development of our universe that is expected in the future.Conclusion: the universe exists forever and the engine of the eternal evolution of the universe is dark energy.

  7. From the eternal existence of the universe, one extremely interesting property follows:in an eternal universe, only infinite periodic processes are possible.For example, it is impossible to change a false vacuum(and therefore its existence)into a true one.Indeed, if we consider any one-time process,then the question arises about its time frame.Any moment of the beginning of this process,as well as its end,will be removed by an infinite time interval from the current one and, therefore, for any observer, it will be completed in the distant past.So, in order to understand what was beforeAfter the Big Bang,it is necessary to understand what will happen to the universe in the future.

  8. No, it can't. Because the second law of thermodynamics states that sooner or later a closed system comes to a state of equilibrium. Since our universe is a closed thermodynamic system, that is, there is no external source that feeds it with energy/matter, sooner or later one equilibrium temperature will be established in the entire Universe.

    This concept was developed even before we knew about the mastabas of the universe and where the stars and our Sun get their energy from. It was put forward by Clausius in the middle of the XIX century. Despite the emergence of quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity, the conclusion remains the same, the universe will inevitably die, only the details of this scenario were clarified.

    It can be described as follows: all stars with a mass of no more than ~ 5 Solar masses, gradually burning out, will increase and turn into red giants (and our planet will be eaten by the Sun), after which they will begin to shrink and turn into white dwarfs. White dwarfs are objects in which no nuclear reactions occur, and energy is released due to gravitational compression, which sooner or later stops, after about a quadrillion years, and the white dwarf turns into a black dwarf, which does not emit an object consisting of tightly packed electrons and protons (well, not to be confused with a black hole), but unlike a neutron star, it does not have such a strong gravitational compression field It is quite possible that the proton is an unstable particle that has a very long but finite lifetime (~10 to 33 years, this is really a lot, our universe is about 10 to 10 years old) and can decay into a positron that annihilates with an electron and leads to the release of energy usually in the form of photons, and a neutral unstable pion that decays into a photon,

    Heavier stars with a mass greater than 5 times the mass of the Sun will explode at the end of their lives, throwing their shell into interstellar space, and the remaining mass of the star will collapse into a black hole. Matter in interstellar space will then form other stars, this time containing more heavy elements, but they will also end their evolution in one of the following scenarios.

    And black holes, apparently, are not stable and lose their mass due to Hocking radiation. Therefore, sooner or later they will also turn into radiation. The larger the black hole, the longer it will take to evaporate. All this will be accompanied by an increasing rate of scattering, due to dark energy, of galaxies in the universe. So in the future, in billions and billions of years, we are waiting for such a boring homogeneous slurry of cooled matter from photons and some slivers of protons and electrons in which the entire temperature has almost leveled off. Of course, it can still be collected several times in compact objects, but each time everything will end in decay, and back will be collected less and less often, due to the expansion of the universe. One could hope for dark matter, which by its weight prevents expansion, but unfortunately its strength is not enough to contain the inertia of run-up and the expanding pressure of dark energy.

    But we, Humanity, can slightly delay this time, if of course we develop into a powerful cosmic civilization, which may have already broken away from its perishable biological body. With the help of astroengineering, you can break massive stars into smaller ones, thereby increasing their cooling time. But the end is still unavoidable. You can watch a very pessimistic clip of the group Complex Numbers “Inevitability” on this topic. But Isaac Asimov is more optimistic in his fantasies, you can read the story “The Last Question”.

  9. There are three models of the development of the Universe (Friedman models).

    In the first type of model, the universe expands slowly enough for the gravitational pull between different galaxies to eventually stop the expansion of the universe.

    After that, the galaxies begin to approach each other, and the universe begins to contract. Thus, in the end, the universe will shrink back into a singularity (the “big bang”theory).

    The other two scenarios assume an infinite expansion of the Universe ( in one, the expansion of the Universe occurs at a rate that is barely enough to avoid collapse, and in the second, the expansion occurs at a certain sufficiently high constant rate).

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