6 Answers

  1. I can advise you to start studying this discipline with the textbooks “Fundamentals of Philosophy”. They give a general idea of the subject itself and after reading it, you can more or less navigate in terms.

    Then you can move on to more serious literature. Bertrand Russell's History of Western Philosophy, for example. Here is an overview of the most prominent philosophical concepts and their creators. From ancient philosophy to Marx and beyond.

    And finally, if you decide to study the question in depth, then you should start with Plato's Dialogues. Plato is the foundation, it is something that you need to start from before moving on to other philosophers. Not without reason, Schopenhauer, in the preface to his book “The World as will and representation” writes that without the necessary basis it is not worth approaching his works and, among other things, especially highlights Plato.

    I hope that I was able not only to help, but also to interest you.

  2. You can start by asking yourself what exactly interests you. If you want to pass the PhD minimum or impress your friends, then a textbook will do (by the way, Russell's textbook, which is so warmly recommended, is not the best, in my opinion. Take at least the article about Kant, it's terrible. An alternative would be the textbook by Reale and Anteseri). But it is better to decide which specific area and problem you are interested in. This does not mean that you need to focus only on it and read only an anthology of political philosophy, but if the question is where to start, then the answer is with questions that affect you personally. Otherwise, philosophy will remain for you a set of opinions of dead men and empty reasoning.

  3. Bertrand Russell “History of Western Philosophy”. There – everything you need + a little more. It is better to read in English, but there are also publications in Russian. Then everyone will figure it out for themselves.

  4. I must say at once that we should not begin with Russell's History of Western Philosophy.

    “The Apology of Socrates”. A classic text that reveals the problem of misunderstanding the wise by the crowd. Like other key dialogues of Plato (“Feast”, “Theaetetus”, “Parmenides”, “Timaeus”, “State”, “Phaedrus”, “Phaedo”, etc.) is a must-read. Apology, although it does not allow us to understand the essence of all philosophy, but it allows us to feel it. Even a hater of philosophical knowledge, after reading Socrates ' speech, can get out of the swamp of misunderstanding and recognize the right to life for philosophy.

    Please note that it is better to read the Apology if you know the cultural and historical context. For example, you need to understand that in the time of ancient Greece, philosophy was, in fact, the only form of knowledge. It is now a special science, other than philosophy, and then they did not exist. And if the current critics of philosophy hate it precisely as a certain, in their opinion, abstract discipline, then the Athenians in the Apology are obscurantists who oppose any enlightenment in principle. In fact, the question is much more complicated, I will not consider it further now, because this is beyond the scope of the topic.

    “State”

    And then you should go through the chronology, along the way reading those who personally like it. But if you don't know the whole history of philosophy up to the specific author you like, then there is a risk of not understanding a bit.

  5. In fact, it's probably a stupid recipe, but it's quite a good place to start. Find on the web or in the search for documents in VK either a rating plan, or just a work plan for a semester in philosophy. It contains the main provisions for studying the subject, and can be used as a plan simply.

    I would advise you to start studying with ancient philosophy and then read the authors purely in chronological order.

    I would advise you not to touch Eastern philosophy at all at first, because it contains a completely different system of values.

    Good luck!

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