3 Answers

  1. The Christian concept of the soul in Matthew 10: 39 “He who has lost his life for my sake will keep it.” Plato's soul, as I understand it, cannot be lost. It is immortal. In Christ, the concept of the soul is more dynamic. A person can lose his soul, but at the same time gain it.
    Here we are talking about metanoia, about an evolutionary modification. If a person remains in his shell even after bodily death, then this is a spiritual death.

  2. In the texts of the New Testament, “soul” usually means “life (of a person) in all its manifestations” or “the emotional side of life” (see the article “Soul” in the Orthodox Encyclopedia). Thus, in St. Paul's anthropology, the soul and the body are a single entity. In any case, the body is not thought of as a ” prison of the soul “(Plato-Pythagorean tradition), and the soul is not understood as a rational principle striving to comprehend the Good. In general, Christian soteriology (the doctrine of salvation) is very different from Plato's doctrine of the cycle of souls.

    Thus, Apostolic Christianity, based on the Jewish tradition, could not have borrowed the concept of “soul” from Platonism, despite the fact that in the texts of the New Testament it is designated by the Greek word psyche. However, in the process of “Hellenization of Christianity”, a lot of philosophical categories and lines of thought begin to penetrate into the young Christian theology, including a rethinking of anthropological problems under the sign of Platonism that dominated the culture of late antiquity. Its influence on the understanding of the ” soul “can be seen in the fact that this concept is becoming more and more”intellectual”. However, the Church as a whole has always drawn a line between Christian theology and Platonism.

  3. Rather, we can say that the concept of soul, which is used in Christianity, came from the philosophy of Plotinus – the ancient Roman philosopher, the creator of Neoplatonism. He systematized and reinterpreted Plato's philosophy and introduced the idea of the journey of immortal souls from the transcendental world to our world. The lower souls, that is, the human ones, strive for a single higher soul. Plotinus was also one of the first to write about the concept of “One Beginning”, the primordial essence of everything. By this he meant precisely God, as a universe that is static when the human world is in constant motion. That is why the ancient Christian authors adopted his ideas. Plotinus also tried to combine ancient polytheism with the concept of a single god

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