- Why did everyone start to hate the Russians if the U.S. did the same thing in Afghanistan, Iraq?
- What needs to be corrected in the management of Russia first?
- Why did Blaise Pascal become a religious man at the end of his life?
- How do I know if a guy likes you?
- When they say "one generation", how many do they mean?
Marxism is Marxism. A doctrine created by Marx and Engels, and there can be no currents in it. Marx and Engels did not have a split personality. There is Leninism – Lenin's development of Marx's teaching in relation to the era of monopoly capitalism (imperialism). Everything else you have listed is journalistic and propaganda cliches that are not trends of any kind.
Trotskyism is a phenomenon of careerism that parasitizes Marxism. Trotsky turned Marx's teaching around in any way he liked, as long as it was to his personal advantage.
Maoism and Stalinism – historical practice of building socialism. These are also not currents at all. Both Stalin and Mao were consistent adherents of the Marx-Lenin doctrine.
All these are versions of Marxism that do not challenge the Marxist postulates about the historical role of workers, the role of employees, the transfer of property and power into their hands. But in different historical circumstances, there are versions of Marxism that look and feel different.�
The Trotskyists assumed, and still do, that the transition to a new post-capitalist society would take place in the most developed countries of the world. Similarly, Marx said that the revolution would take place in progressive Britain and, perhaps, in the United States. It would seem that there is nothing to think about.�
But the Maoist tradition, which is very powerful in China, the Philippines, Colombia, Nepal, and India, has been thinking quite differently since Lenin's time. Mao's forerunner was Lenin, who supplemented Marx's teaching with a fundamentally new point: he began to view the capitalist system as a world system. And if we look at it as a global one, we will see its weak points.�
Of course, resources for the revolution will arise in the most developed part of the world, but this does not mean that they will be realized by it, they can be realized in the weak links where the developed Western world takes production. And the social and class problems that might exist in Europe or the United States are moving to where these relations take them. In world trade, as in a world war, the Third World can be a moment where a break can occur and new social relations can arise. So Lenin and Mao reasoned. According to this scenario, dozens of revolutions took place in the 20th century. In fact, the Maoist version of revolution in backward regions proved to be true for the 20th century: dozens of countries followed this path.
Trotskyism is based on the ideas of internal party democracy and “revolution for export with bayonets”. In short, Trotskyism is a less “national-patriotic” version of Bolshevism than Maoism and Stalinism, and it is also less authoritarian, preaching a semblance of moderate parliamentarism, when party bureaucrats can “withdraw”. Trotskyism is also based on the claim that it is possible to carry out soft (compared to Stalin's) industrialization. Criticism of the USSR is based mainly on the theory of the conspiratorial service of the Soviet (and post-Soviet) bureaucracy to the world imperialist bourgeoisie. Then there are the idealistic theories that this very attitude makes it possible to define the bureaucracy either as an “intermediate class” or as a bourgeoisie, or not at all.
Stalinism defends the ideas of a” protracted “world revolution in the same ways, but with a long period of radical bloody industrialization and significant militarization of the”socialist camp” /country_name. Stalinism has a significant nationalist and patriotic component compared to Trotskyism, a “neutral-critical” attitude to the characters and symbols of the past (Suvorov, Nevsky, Peter 1, Slavs). At the same time, the Stalinists ' attitude to national liberation and separatist movements was much stricter, as evidenced by the past of Volga Germans, Crimean Tatars, Chechens, Ingush, Ukrainians/Little Russians, Belarusians/Litvins and many others. Criticism of the USSR is based on the subjective factor of history: it mainly concerns the Khrushchev-Brezhnev and Trotskyist “revisionists”.
Maoism revises Marxism's position on the leading role of the proletariat and openly assigns the main role to the peasantry (even more so than previous versions of Leninism/Bolshevism). Criticism always concerns the same revisionists. Maoism strongly supports oppressed nations in their struggle against globalism/imperialism, but attitudes towards Freedom of Speech, the USSR, anarchism, or Chinese nationalism can change from Maoist to Maoist, partly due to Mao's more frequent “tossing and turning” during his lifetime. Maoism is usually regarded as the heir of Stalinism, but it is often combined with Trotskyist ideology.
Trotskyism-professes the ideology of the world revolution. Sometimes, you can hear such a term as”permanent revolution”. The essence of this concept boils down to the fact that until the revolution captures all the countries of the world, it should not stop.
Stalinism is an ideology that denies the idea of world revolution. Socialism can be built in a single country or region that unites several states. In the future, the economic development of such a country or region should lead to an evolutionary transformation of the rest of the capitalist world into a socialist one.
Maoism is a form of Trotskyism loaded with Chinese characteristics and elements of anarchism. The main and driving slogan-The rifle gives birth to power!