2 Answers

  1. The main problem with Marxist theory in explaining capitalist society is that it thinks in terms of the behavior not of individuals, but of classes (for example, the nobility, the bourgeoisie, the proletariat). The American economist Mansur Olson is particularly known for his criticism of this approach (his well – known works, translated into Russian, are “The Logic of Collective Action” and “The Rise and Decline of Nations”).

    In Marxist theory, it is assumed that the capitalist, for example, does not act in his own personal interests, but in the interests of his class (or that these interests coincide with each other). In scientific terms, it is assumed that classes have solved the problem of collective action for themselves.

    Relatively speaking, Marxist theory predicts that capitalists will agree among themselves and set workers ' wages at the level of the subsistence minimum, and they will take the surplus value for themselves, that is, there is no competitive pricing in the labor market. However, in real life, we see that capitalists act uncoordinated and entice workers from each other, offering them a higher salary, a better social package, because they are interested in the quality of the labor force. So in the end, the worker gets as much as they are willing to pay him, without causing a loss to the company, in terms of his qualifications, as well as the level of capital-to-labor ratio of the economy. From the point of view of Marxist theory, employers should not behave in this way, because it is contrary to the interests of the class.

  2. The idea of universal equality and freedom for every member of society. People are all different, with different opportunities and needs, they cannot be equal. A person, like any other living being on our planet, cannot be free – he is dependent on his desires, instincts, and the duties that society imposes on him.

Leave a Reply