2 Answers

  1. The very word culture (from Latin cultura) means cultivation, development, education. In this connection, there is a wonderful saying of Chanakya Pandit (Niti-sastra. 1000 BC), which in the East is considered the standard of the concept of culture: “One is truly a scholar who regards another's wife as a mother, another's possessions as stones, and all living things as himself.” Three components of human culture are described here. This is a simple formula for the civilized coexistence of human society. One of the reasons for discord and sometimes wars is that men start looking at other people's wives (the Trojan War, the Kurukshetra War, Atilla with Flavius Aetius, etc.), and women start looking at other people's husbands. The second reason is obvious, and this is someone else's wealth, land, natural resources, etc. In someone else's meadow, as they say, the grass is greener. The third reason is when a person sees that the whole world revolves around him and others must serve him.

    “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” is a phrase from the Mahabharata (fifth book, written 3000 B.C.). This phrase is mentioned at least three times. I especially liked one of the variations of this great aphorism that Vidura uttered to his brother, the Emperor Dritarashtra: “You should not do to others what you would not want to be done to you. This is justice. Other types of justice are also known. Anger can be overcome by forgiveness, the wicked by kindness, the miser by generosity, and falsehood by truth.”.. Justice consists in always responding with a desire to understand the other.

    Power is not to respond with anger to anger, but to disarm anger with understanding, this is true justice, because everyone can make mistakes and if a mistake is met with understanding and a desire to help, then this world can become better every day. Every time someone doesn't treat you as they should, understand that it's an echo of what you shouldn't have done. Don't do anything you don't want to do in return, then you'll understand the reason for every calm and storm…�

  2. The question here is, what is meant by a harmonious human society? And could a harmonious society in the process of its development create the technologies that our ancestors created?

    Culture is a continuation of our biology (here this question is discussed in detail – https://brammels.com/satoshi-kanazawa/there-is-only-one-human-culture/ ), and above all, it is a tool that increases the probability of achieving biological goals. And biological goals are not at all harmonious. Culture, and above all the ability to share the ethics of cooperation and struggle, helps to reduce violence within society, but still does not eliminate it completely.

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