7 Answers

  1. If I understand correctly what you want, then you need to read (first or at all) one book-Diogenes Laertes “On THE LIFE, TEACHINGS AND SAYINGS OF FAMOUS PHILOSOPHERS“. There, he sets out to find the origins of ancient philosophy, to explain where the classical philosophers took the first concepts of philosophy, cosmogony, ethics, mechanics, etc., and what each of them contributed to the world (for that time) philosophical science. The book is written in the form of short essays about hundreds of great philosophers, with biographies, basic ideas, anecdotes from their lives . It is easy to read and pleasant, but it is not large in volume.

  2. In philosophy, any concept has a right to exist, it's not some strict physics or high-tech engineering. Strictly speaking, to answer your question, it is enough to read the ancient Greek philosophers themselves – the works of some of them are very well preserved (for example, the entire corpus of Plato's works has survived). The same Plato wrote (though putting these words in the mouth of Socrates) that philosophy begins with surprise (Theaetl., 155d), i.e., he saw and immediately asked the question: why is it so? Then you sit down and think, watch, discuss, ask questions, and so on. The same Plato in his” State ” very convincingly painted such a scene of philosophical dispute. How does this ten-book dialogue begin? After watching all the ceremonies associated with the celebration in honor of Artemis in Piraeus, Socrates wants to go home, but his friend Polemarchus offers him to stay, and Adimantus (by the way, Plato's own brother) informs that there will be a horse race in the evening. In anticipation of the evening spectacle, the company starts a conversation and, word for word, come to the question of justice and … oh wait! It turned out to be a powerful dialogue (once again – �for ten books). Here, in fact, is the answer.

  3. Oddly enough, but the idea of a certain “superintelligence”simply suggests itself. In any case, when reading Plato's dialogues on Socrates, I learned about the idea of transmigration of souls and how the mind “remembers” ideas that the ideal soul knows, but which are hidden by the passions for the mortal mind. But this is just a Platonic interpretation, and it does not in any way replace Archimedes ' heuristic, the idea of the atom in Democritus, up to the steam engine that opened and closed the gates of the ancient temple. I am inclined to attribute all this to the possibilities of the human mind, some effective combination of intuition, imagination, observation, logic and skepticism, which produced such paradoxical results, striking the current intellectually impotent generation with its splendor.

    Even the misconceptions of ancient thinkers seem preferable to many modern concepts of venerable scientists, especially if you take political science or sociology. And if you compare Aristotle's arguments about chrematistics and modern economic postulates about the inviolability of commodity-money relations and private property, then despite all the naive simplicity of antiquity, you will give your sympathies to them, since judging by historical evidence or traditions, their ideas were inextricably linked with their life, and sometimes with death, as in the case of Socrates, who did not write a single line and most likely was a constant troublemaker of the then Athenian establishment, fly in the ointment when he came across barrels of honey.

  4. It seemed to me that everyone knew the ancient Greek trade network “Everything for a quarter of a Drachma”, where the scrolls” Collection of the best questions about the nature of being “and the papyrus coloring book”My personal arche” were sold. This is where all the more or less well-known ancient authors were bought, because we see the obvious influence of the pamphlet “Best Themes for an Epic Poem” in both Homer and Virgil.

    But seriously, there is no spherical philosopher in a vacuum, they all grew up in one cultural situation or another. You don't even need to dig very deep to understand that most of Plato's ideas were formed under the influence of local beliefs.

  5. Of course, I want to believe that the wisdom of philosophers is the result of magical practices, the revelation of God, or something like that. But no. Philosophers reached their ideas by hard mental work, education, disputes, debates.�So there is no easy way to become a philosopher.

  6. Knowledge is not a source of Urd, there is no place to draw it. Ancient philosophers created it based on observations, logic and everyday folklore wisdom. There was no question of experiments, because of the disdain of the free inhabitants of the polis for physical labor and “technology”

  7. The Greeks are good students and popularizers of ancient knowledge. They learned from the Egyptians, Zoroastrians, and followers of other religions. And then they gave out the learned truths, everyone was delighted.

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