8 Answers

  1. …there's something else…Treachery is TREACHERY. Right? But the question of TRUST and FAITH itself is a CHARM! ( from the word ENCHANTMENT) It is the endowment of a person who is trusted with something that he himself is not in truth (comparable to the sorcery of a magician) And then what kind of betrayal are we talking about? After all, the TRUE ESSENCE is revealed only with the help of a true adviser-DEATH. And before that, a person is not able to recognize himself. So how does a trusting person trust someone they don't know? Is this STUPID or…?! The gullible commit no less sin! They who have not reached the truth begin to build the ILLUSION of LIFE in their minds, and then blame others for their created illusion!? And taking on the burden of the Creator is already Blasphemy! It was also laced with RESENTMENT that their illusion was not accepted…Just the same tin! Resentment is PRIDE. So BOTH the traitor and the devotee are SINNERS! … Because THE ESSENCE IS UNCHANGEABLE!

  2. …Because betrayal is the MURDER of FAITH and trust. What a healthy society consists of.

    …If there is no faith and trust, there is no Humanity, i.e., no God's creation itself. The reason is simple.

  3. Because everything can be justified for yourself. Even murder. You did everything because…. And how to justify betrayal? How can you look at yourself in the mirror and say to yourself, I betrayed because…?

  4. This is hardly a complete answer to your question, but I still think it will be useful to read it. Excerpt from the book” Self-knowledge ” by Nikolai Berdyaev.

    People have become so sophisticated in protecting their own interests and desires that they have even reached the point of Christian transformation and sublimation of the primary instincts of revenge. This has always aroused in me a passionate opposition. I have no doubt that sadistic instincts are transformed in the cruel teaching of eternal hell. Many “orthodox” Christians value the idea of eternal hell torment, they like it. And they are sure that the torment of hell threatens not them, but their neighbors, whom they terrorize. The idea of eternal hell torment was of great sociological significance. With the help of this idea, the masses of people were controlled, barbaric and sinful instincts were subdued. But they took advantage of this idea at a time when Christian Europe believed in it, very poorly, and used it to please the instincts and interests of the “first”, dominant ones. It has often occurred to me that if the people of the church, when Christian humanity believed in the horror of hell's torment, had threatened excommunication, communion, death, and eternal torment to those who are obsessed with the will to power and rule, to riches and exploitation of their neighbors, then history would have been completely different. Instead, they were threatened with hell's torment mainly for heresies, for deviations from doctrine, for disobedience to the church hierarchy, and for minor sins that were considered mortal, sometimes for small things that did not matter. This had fatal consequences in the history of Christendom. But the very idea of eternal hellish torment, ugly and sadistic, but presenting a complex philosophical problem, in fact, deprives the spiritual and moral life of a person of value. It turns life into a trial, threatening life of hard labor. This idea reveals the darkest subconscious in a person. Hell exists as a human experience, as a human path. But every ontology of hell is ugly. In my attitude to Christianity, I divided people into supporters and opponents of hell. This determined my assessment of Christians. I am convinced that the supporters of hell are people who want it, for others, of course. Christians were often sophisticated sadists. But now their intimidation is not effective enough, the intimidation of the earthly hell is more effective. At the root of my aversion to the doctrine of eternal hellish torment is probably my primary feeling of pity and compassion, the impossibility of joy and bliss when there is exorbitant suffering and torment. Salvation is possible only together with all other people. This is when it is especially appropriate to remember about conciliarity. And I have never been able to admit that God has less compassion and pity than I, an imperfect and sinful being. In fact, I have always rebelled against any trial of men; I disliked any trial, or any declamation of just retribution, and I sympathized more with those who were judged than with those who were judged. This is due to the fact that I am a lawless person and that my life has been a lawless life. I am like this by instinct, not because of any achievements. I can't stand cruelty, but in the fight for freedom, I could get violent, break up with friends. I could wish hell to the supporters and planners of hell. There is even worse. I am most tormented by the fact that I have experienced a cruel oblivion, the loss of people from my memory. When memory returned, remorse set in. Sobornost is closest to me in the sense of common guilt, the responsibility of all for all.

  5. “The Divine Comedy” is not only a great literary work, but also a unique (artistic) document on that period of Italian history, which was called the “wars of the Guelphs and Gibbelins” (XII-XIV centuries). A document written by a participant in the events and repeatedly mentioning many other participants in these wars, marked not only by exploits, but also by crimes and betrayals on both sides. It is the last three rounds (7-9) that are most saturated with characters who actually lived (and even several who were still alive at the time of writing the Divine Comedy): Dante's contemporaries, rivals, and enemies (see for example:�https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%90%D0%B4_(%D0%91%D0%BE%D0%B6%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%B8%D1%8F). Therefore, I think that in addition to the religious (the figure of Lucifer as an explanatory symbol), moral and literary grounds already mentioned in other answers, the actual context of Dante's modern reality, which he experiences not only as an artist and thinker, but also as a person, is also significant.

  6. It is better to ask Dante himself, but since he was personally honored (with the passage of time, which does not spare anyone) to go to another world, it is essentially impossible to ask him.
    It should be borne in mind that Dante's work is not a dogmatic manual of Roman Catholic Christianity, it is just a work of art, even if it is on a Christian theme.
    Betrayal, in principle, is a very difficult act for a person. In fact, even suicide (the most serious and non-purifying sin of Christianity) can be considered a betrayal, both of one's loved ones and of God himself. I think that's why Dante's audience was honored to be close to the hero of the occasion (the fallen angel). By the way, Lucifer is also essentially a traitor, because he turned his back on his Creator.

  7. Betrayal is a fact of renunciation. People have always attached special importance to the “last step”. Treachery might be comparable in its power to murder, but treachery can manifest itself in the form of murder, and murder is not necessarily treachery. In Christianity, where the main enemy of the world is called “the Evil One”, the basis of all evil is untruth, lies. Treachery is always the ultimate meanness, the absolute lie. Satan is a traitor. Judas is a traitor.�

    If we talk about our ordinary life: forgive a thief, forgive an envious person, forgive a murderer, but can you really forgive someone who was called a friend, but stabbed you in the back?

    P.S.: meanwhile, it's interesting to wonder: isn't one of the reasons why it is impossible to forgive betrayal precisely pride (pride)?

  8. For Dante's physics, the center is not a geometric center, but something that is the source of motion, the prime mover. The further away from the movement, the further away from God-the Prime Mover. Therefore, the immobile Lucifer is farthest from God.

    The order of the circles of hell is determined by the fact that delusion is a lesser sin than violence. Lust is a delusion in love, gluttony is a delusion in desire that already has a moment of violence to its nature. Avarice adds violence to things, and anger adds violence to people. Heresy is violence against a sacred object. Then violence begins in its most vivid expressions, which no longer leaves room for nonviolence (the seventh circle), then come the most vivid forms of lies, which cause violence (the eighth circle), and finally, at the lowest circle, betrayal, which is the triumph and source of lies. � � � �

    The distribution of the circles of hell is entirely the will of Dante himself, he is quite subjective here, in this he somewhat anticipates Rebirth and Humanism. At the same time, the official teaching did not have an unambiguous point of view on the distribution of sins. There were different gradations, but the sin of pride, betrayal-this is the most terrible sin. So Lucifer, who in his pride has rebelled and is at the lowest rung. Otherwise, Dante is quite arbitrary – it seems surprising, but it's a fact. It has its own gradation: there are traitors to people, traitors to God. And the less terrible traitors deceived those who did not trust, and the most terrible, on the contrary, deceived those who trusted. God trusted Lucifer, loved him, and he is a terrible traitor.

    The 9th circle is the most sinister and thus the most attractive. Its name is – TREACHERY, THE BELT OF CAIN, THE MIDDLE, THE CENTER OF THE UNIVERSE, THE GIUDECCA BELT, AND THE ICY LAKE COCYTUS. Among the most famous ones, they spend forever there:BRUTUS, JUDAS ISCARIOT, and CASSIUS. 9 the circle of hell is guarded by severe guards. Giants named EPHIALTES, ANTEUS, BRIAREUS, AND LUCIFER.
    CAIN'S BELT-Traitors to their families. Cain in Western Semitic and Biblical mythology is 1) the eldest son of Adam and Eve, 2) the son of the angel Samael and Eve, or 3) the son of the evil one (devil) and Eve, in general, the very first person born on Earth. Cain is the father of Enoch and the progenitor of his line. And also Cain the fratricide.
    ANTENOR BELT – Traitors to the Motherland and like-minded people. ANTENOR in ancient Greek mythology, a Trojan, friend and adviser of Priam, husband of Theano (Theano), daughter of the Thracian king Kisseus. Antenor himself is a traitor according to the post-Homeric legend. �
    TOLOMEI'S BELT-Traitors to friends and fellow diners. This circle takes its name from the name of Ptolemy, the governor of Jericho, who invited his father-in-law, the prince-high priest of Judea, and his two sons, and treacherously killed them at a feast.
    The GIUDECCA BELT is the last circle, or rather the central circle of hell. The belt is named Giudecca after the apostle Judas, who betrayed Christ. In the middle of the Giudecca (in other words, in the CENTER of the UNIVERSE, LUCIFER, frozen with his shins in an ice floe, torments in his three mouths traitors to the majesty of the earthly and heavenly (Judas, Brutus and Cassius).

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